Climate Change Strategies in Cities

Climate Change strategies in PAKLIM partner cities and districts

Integrated Climate Change Strategy in Blitar

GHG Inventory – Blitar City 

Greenhouse Gas Inventory

Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory is a description of GHG emission sources identified within a specific area. GHG inventory acts as tool to assist government on monitoring GHG production and environmental impact from climate change point of view. GHG inventory also provides a benchmark for planning and monitoring progress with emission reduction initiatives. 

The sources of GHG are carbondiokside (CO2), methane (CH4), dinitrokside (N2O), perfluorocarbon (HFCs) and sulfurheksafluoride (SF6) and GHG inventory normally calculated within tonnes CO2 equivalent (t CO2e). The scope GHG Inventory and sectors includes Energy (includes energy in industry, settlement, commercial and transportation), IPPU (the industrial process and product use), AFOLU (Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use) and Waste (solid and liquid) sector.  

Name  Blitar city
Wide    32.58 km2
Population (2012) 145,300
Sex ratio 99,70
Density (km2)  4,66
Cooperation  2011
Status Replication 


Blitar city, known as the “The Ground of Bung Karno” is the second smallest city in the province of East Java. This city spans an area 32.58 km2 and divided into 3 sub districts and 21 villages. The generating sector for Blitar City’s income are from trading, hotel and restaurant sector services as well as the financial sector, leasing and business services.

Economy of Blitar city year 2012


GHG emissions Blitar city by sector year 2012

Total GHG emission in Blitar city in year 2012 is 204,264 t CO2e. The largest contributor comes from energy sector which account for 156,504 t CO2e (77%), waste sector 34,469 t CO2e (17%) and AFOLU sector 13,291 t CO2e (6%). The detail of each subsector are as follows. 

GHG emissions from energy sector largely contributed by CO2 emissions from transportation, which is due to consumption of fossil fuels and followed by residential, commercial and others due to electricity consumption. 

GHG emissions comes from AFOLU sectors contributed from CH4 and N2O emissions by farming activities related to the manure management production, livestock and then followed by the rice cultivation activity. 

GHG emissions from waste sector largely contributed from CH4 emissions comes from activities in the landfill and wastewater treatment management.   


GHG emission by type


GHG emissions by sector 2011-2013 (t CO2e)


GHG emission projection in year 2020 for Blitar city is 288,389 t CO2e. Overall, the largest GHG contributor in Blitar city come from energy sector. 


GHG projection Blitar City in year 2020


Climate mitigation measures

Blitar city have developed Integrated City Climate Strategy (ICCS). Blitar city aims for emission reduction 

target of 11% compared to Business as Usual (BAU) scenario by 2020. The ICCS formulates several climate strategies aimed at mitigation and adaptation, includes:

  1. Improving Environmental Management using Participatory Approach

  2. Improving the Environmental Health Settlement

  3. Improving Preparedness and Disaster Relief

  4. Improving the Integrated Farming Management

  5. Improve Urban Facilities and Open green space

  6. Improving the Quality of Water Supply

  7. Improving the natural resources conservation and alternative energy development

  8. Improving energy efficiency effort within government and street lighting facility 

  9. Improving the Quality of Health Care and Family Planning

Some planned mitigation actions in Blitar city such as pollution control (bike to work), socialization of waste management, waste bank development, energy efficiency and saving in neighborhood and government official level, utilization of energy alternative, application of LED for energy efficient street lighting. 

Blitar City actively campaigning climate change issues through various media, such as radio and website and socialization up to sub district level and develop Kelompok Peduli Lingkungan to enduse environment issues taken into account within Musyarawah Perencanaan dan Pembangunan-Musrembang.  In implementing its climate change actions, Blitar City also cooperates with Mercy Corps on Asian City Climate Change Resilience Network (ACCCRN) program with Rockafeller Foundation. Blitar city is also chosen as pilot city for RAN-API.



POKJA Perubahan Iklim Kota Blitar 


Jl. Merdeka No.105 Blitar

Telp. (0342) 801734

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Integrated Climate Change Strategy in Pekalongan


Pekalongan City

Greenhouse Gases Profile and Climate Change Strategy





Pekalongan economic structure is dominated by trade, hotels and restaurants, and industrial sector. The contribution of the trade, hotels and restaurants is up to 27.13%, while the manufacturing sector is 20.87%. 

GHG emissions profile by sectors

Total GHG emissions of Pekalongan City in 2012 reached 656,068.2 tons CO2e consisting of 540,567.63 tonnes CO2e from energy; 11383.81 tonnes of CO2e  from agriculture, forestry and land use reached; and 104,116.78 tonnes of CO2e from waste management sector. While the process and industrial products sector are not counted in this inventory report due to data limita-tions. The proportion of GHG source in Pekalongan in 2012 can be seen in Figure

GHG emissions Trend 

In aggregate, the amount of GHG emissions in Pekalongan City is dominated by from energy sector emissions followed by waste sector. The increasing of energy sector émission is the highest in 2012. While waste sector emissions is in line with the growth rate of the urban population because the calculation waste sector is closely linked to population data.


Tabel. Greenhouse Gases Composition of Pekalongan City Year 2008 - 2012

Based on the type of GHG emissions, CO2 emissions is still the largest contributor for GHG total followed by CH4 and N2O. 


Commitment of Pekalongan City 

To achieve the goal Pekalongan City Government in the face of climate change impacts in the future, Pekalongan City is com-mitted to

Increasing the resilience of city and government to climate change impacts and risks while participating to reduce GHG emissions from government operations up to 20% and all development activities up to 15% in 2020.



To achieve the goal, Pekalongan city  has set 8 Pekalongan City Strategic Plan on Climate Change as shown above




GHG reduction Emmissions



BAU, Inventory and Emission Reduction





Badan Lingkungan Hidup Provinsi Jawa Tengah

Komp. Diklat Jl. Setiabudi No. 201

Semarang - Jawa Tengah 



Integrated Climate Change Strategy in Malang

GHG Emission and Climate Change Strategy Malang City



City GHG Emission

GHG Emission for Kota Malang on 2010 estimated 1.224.225 ton CO2e consist of energy consumption 1.008.229 ton CO2e from energy sector, 209.846 ton CO2e from waste management, and 12.045 ton from waste sector, and 6.150 from AFOLU sector.


GHG Emission trend

Energy consumption estimated growing higher then other sector in GHG Inventory, and can be seen on the following table :


Commitment of Malang City

As commitment in mitigating and adaptation for climate change impact, the city government aim for the following objective:

"To establish resilient Malang city to Climate Change by imple-menting integrated strategy to reduce 6% of GHG emission on 2020"


Climate Change Strategy

To achieve this objective, Malang develop 7 strategy as compila-tion of action plan regarding climate change, as follows :

  • Energy Efficiency thorugh technology utilization on wa-ter supply
  • Increased public health service
  • Develop and manage Green Open Space for water con-servation
  • Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
  • Utilizaiton of technology and alternative energy in ener-gy efficiency
  • Improve solid and waste water management
  • Control and monitoring for air pollution


Energy Efficient Streetlight

Conventional Streetlight Replacement with LED as a NAMA approach to NAMA GHG Mitigation Action Plan in cooperation with OSRAM by promoting low emission streetlight and piloted at Kota Malang, Tugu Area in front of cityhall.

The benefit in using LED as an energy efficient street-light can be seen from energy cost and CO2 saving on the following chart 

The investment will be cost recovery from the saving gained of electric bills, and the payback period can be seen on the following chart

Cooperation with GIZ and PT OSRAM Indonesia, Kota Malang have installed 14 streetlights near City Hall and Tugu Monument with LED and Solar Panel.

Installed LED as Energy Efficient Streetlights




Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah (Bappeda) Kota Malang, Lantai 1

Jl. Tugu No. 1, Kota Malang 65119

Jawa Tengah, Indonesia 



Integrated Climate Change Strategy in Probolinggo

City of Probolinggo – Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies



PAKLIM is Indonesian-German Technical cooperation that provides technical assistance and supports the policy framework improvement in the field of environment and climate change. In cities, PAKLIM’s objective is to support the reduction of GHG emissions by developing strategies and tools for mitigation at local level. PAKLIM analysis indicates that there is a significant potential within Indonesia’s cities for reductions in GHG emissions – especially in respect with the transport sector, energy use and waste management practices. 


City of Probolinggo is one of 11 PAKLIM pilot cities chosen to test and implement the integrated climate change actions. City of Probolinggo has established an Integrated Climate Change Strategies (ICCS) as a guideline to implement adaptation and mitigation measures. The city has set a goal of reducing its GHG emissions by 12%, compared to 2020 BAU levels. The establishment of ICCS is also part of local government support to the national commitment to reduce its GHG emissions by 26% by 2020. To ensure the implementation of the climate mitigation strategies, city government also monitors the progress regularly and conducts an annual inventory of GHG emissions.


GHG Emissions Profiles- City of Probolinggo

City of Probolinggo is located along coast and covering an area of 56,667 km2 with a population of 219,139 inhabitants in 2012. The city also acts as a transit hub connecting the cities on its eastern border (Banyuwangi, Jember, Bondowoso, Situbondo dan Lumajang) with its westerly neighbors (Pasuruan, Malang and Surabaya). These conditions influence the production of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the city’s resilience in the face of climate change impacts.

City of Probolinggo produces GHG emissions from three main sectors, namely: energy, AFOLU (Agriculture, Forestry and Other land use) and waste sectors. The City’s GHG emissions are estimated to increase to 538.755 ton CO2e in 2020 in a Business as Usual (BAU) scenario. Over the 2010-2012 period, the level of emissions increased by 3% annually. In 2012, energy sector was responsible for 82% of the city’s GHG emissions followed by waste sector (11%) and AFOLU sector (7%). 

Energy Sector

In 2012, the largest emission source from energy sector was from energy consumption for transportation followed by energy use in industry and household.  It was estimated that 49% of emission as a result of fossil fuels consumptions and 46% was produced from electricity consumption.

AFOLU Sector

GHG Emissions from AFOLU sector comprises emissions from fermentation enteric and manure management of livestock, rice cultivation, manure applications and land use change. In 2012 more than half of emissions from AFOLU sector were produced from livestock followed by methane emission from rice cultivation (25.6%) and land use change (0.3%)

Waste Sector

Waste sector is the second largest contributor of GHG emissions and produces most of methane emissions. Waste sector produced an estimated 40.820 ton CO2e or 11.3% of total emissions in 2012.  Most of emission was contributed by domestic waste water treatment (66%) and the other 34% was produced from the landfill and composting.


GHG Emissions by Sector in 2012



GHG Inventory and BaU Scenario


GHG Mitigation Measures

Probolinggo’s Integrated Climate Change Strategies comprises 5 GHG mitigation strategies. Each strategy consists of mitigation action plans as follows:

  1. Establish an effective and efficient transportation system. The action plans for this strategy include establishing parking management, promoting smart/eco driving and car free day
  2. Control the use of energy in Government Building, Street lighting and water treatment. The action plans   include replacing conventional lighting with more efficient alternatives, installing lamp sensor, and using renewable energy in the pumping system.
  3. Develop integrated waste management. The mitigation action plans include promoting the implementation of 3R, capturing landfill gas, composting of organic wastes, developing biogas technology from organic wastes and constructing central wastewater treatment plant
  4. Increase the community capacity and participation in energy saving program. This strategy will be implemented by establishing awards for green industry, promoting energy efficient appliance, and establishing green building competitions
  5. Promote the protection, restoration and wise-use of land and water. The action plans include constructing bio pores, increasing the green space, and forest rehabilitation.


In 2013 City of Probolinggo implemented some mitigation measures in 3 sectors
to reduce its emission levels


Cooperation with Other Donors

The implementation of Integrated Climate Change Strategies (ICCS) in City of Probolinggo is coordinated by Climate Change Working Group led by The Head of Environmental Agency. The implementation of mitigation action plans will require funding from various sources such as government, private sector, and community. To accelerate the implementation of mitigation measures, the city government also cooperates with national and international donors. In 2014, City of Probolinggo has attracted 3 other international donors to support the implementation of climate change strategies with the main activities as follows


For further information please contact:

The Secretariat of Climate Change Working Group

Kantor Badan Lingkungan Hidup (BLH) 

Kota Probolinggo

Jl.  Anggrek No.15, Probolinggo 

Phone: 0335-421646

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Integrated Climate Change Strategy in Surakarta

Greenhouse Gases Profile and Climate Change Strategy Surakarta City

Surakarta City Profile

Surakarta is one of the big cities in central java that support other cities like Semarang and Yogyakarta. Surakarta is divided adminis-tratively into 5 sub district, namely Kecamatan Laweyan, Seren-gan, Pasar Kliwon, Jebres, and Banjarsari. Most or 65% of land use in the city of Sura-karta in the form of settlements, while the use of land for economic activities by 16.5% of the area of Surakarta.

The temperature in Surakarta range from 25,8oC to 28,3oC. The humidity in Surakarta recorded 66% to 88%. Most rainy day in January the number of rainy days as much as 25 days with rainfall of 783 mm. While the average rainfall on a rainy day is also the biggest fall in January is equal to 25.3 mm of rain per day.



Surakarta economic structure dominated by trade, service, and following by industries sector. The contribution of trade is up to 41%, while the industries sector is 33%


GHG emissions city profile 

Total GHG emissions of Surakarta City in 2012 reached 1.383.284 tons CO2e consisting of 1.156.342 tonnes of CO2 from procure-ment and energy use, 38 ton CO2e from process and industrial product, 3.229 ton CO2e from agriculture, forestry and landuse, and 223.674 tons CO2e from waste management sector. The proportion of GHG Surakarta City in the period 2008-2012 can be seen in Figure 


GHG emissions trend


In agregat, the amount of GHG emission in Surakarta City in 2012 is the largest emissions for several years. The increasing of GHG emissions ranged from 0,61-43,69%, with the highest increase occurred from 2010 to 2011, and the lowest is in the period 2011-2012.


Greenhouse Gases Composition of Surakarta City in 2008-2012

Based on the type of GHG emissions,
CO2 emissions still the largest contribution for GHG total of Surakarta City
and followed by CH4 and N2O. 


Commitment of Surakarta City

To achieve the goal Surakarta City Government’s commitment in the face of climate impact in the future, Surakarta city is commited to :

"Realizing the cultured city of Surakarta as environ-mentally friendly (eco-cultural city) by controlling the impact of climate change and resource management"




To achieve the goal and commitment to face climate change, Surakarta City has established the 7 Strategic Plan for Climate Change as shown above : 

  1. Control flooding, inundation and the subsequent impacts due to increased rainfall intensity
  2. Improve access to water supply for areas prone to drought
  3. Development of integrated waste management to sup-port the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and keep the environment clean and healthy
  4. Increase green space to create a good microclimate, absorb air pollution, improve water infiltration, and provide public space for community
  5. Prevention and control of the spread of disease, especially diseases of the vector insect and water associated with climate change
  6. Implementation of energy efficiency in government buildings, private, public and industrial and public facilities.
  7. Development of efficient public transport and affordable to all communities



As a form of implementation of the 7 Strategic Plan for Climate Change, Surakarta has conducted programs and activities related to adaptation and mitigation of climate change, namely


The other development and physical activities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation at Surakarta in 2010-2014, as follows:




Badan Lingkungan Hidup Provinsi Jawa Tengah

Komp. Diklat Jl. Setiabudi No. 201

Semarang - Jawa Tengah 



Integrated Climate Change Strategy in Salatiga


The City of Salatiga

GHG Emissions Profile and Climate Change Strategies




Salatiga at Glance 

Salatiga lies in the foot of Mounth Merbabu, 750 – 850 meters above sea level. It is a mountanious area with beautiful scenary of Mounth Merbabu, Ungaran, Telomoyo, and Pening Lake. It has high rainfall and raindays with low temperature. 

Total area of Salatiga is only 56,78 Km2 and traversed by Semarang-Surakarta corridor. With its position, Salatiga generate its income from commerce, hotel, and restaurant activities. It is indicated in the economic structure of gross domestic product. Economic structure of Salatiga is dominated by commerce, hotel, and restaurant sector while manufacture industry is in the second position. Contribution of commerce, hotel, and restaurant sector to the city’s domestic product is 19% while manufacture industry sector is 17% as shown below


Economic Structure of Salatiga in 2012


GHG Emissions Profile and Trend

Salatiga emitted 439.401 ton CO2e in 2012 with the highest contribution from Energy Generation and Use sector 439.401 ton CO2e; Agriculture, Forestry, and Landuse sector produced sink equal to 6.360 ton CO2e; and Waste Management Sector 58.721 ton CO2e. Industrial Process and Product Use sector is not estimated since there is not activities are reported. 


Sectoral Composition of GHG Emissions


In aggregat, GHG emissions tend to increase in the period of 2008-2012. In 2008, GHG emissions is reported about 397.000 ton CO2e. In 2009, GHG emission status decreased to 353.000 ton CO2e but afterward GHG emissions increased constantly. The main increasing source is the use of energy and waste management while in AFOLU sector, land cover contribute to reduce emission eventhough up and down during the period.


Trend of GHG Emission Growth



The growth of GHG emissions are caused by the increase of energy consumption and population. Energy consumption is dominated by the use of electricity.

According to the type of gases, GHG emissions are mostly dominated by CO2. CH4 is in the second position while N2O is only minor. Other type of gas is not reported. Detail gases composition is shown in the below

Composition of GHG gases per type of gas



Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan

In order to respond climate change risk and it causes, Salatiga has developed climate change strategy involving all development stakeholders. Salatiga declares its commitment to :

"Improving the resilient the City of Salatiga toward climate change impacts and reducing GHG emissions by 8% from business as usual by 2020"

To achieve its commitment, Salatiga formulated strategies and action plans. The strategy is to guide not only city government agencies but also community, private  sectors and other development stakeholders. Each strategy consist a set of action plans.

The seven climate change strategy formulated by Salatiga


Commitment and Climate Change Strategy

  1. Improving availability and access of water especially to drought vulnerable areas and communities
  2. Preventing and controlling of climate associated deseases. The main focus is desease from mosquito vector such as DBD
  3. Increasing quantity and quality of green open spaces with various functions (multi-purpose green open spaces).
  4. Promoting and implementing energy efficiency in public, private and community building and facilities.
  5. Improving mass transportation management with integration of non-motorized transportation modes and pedestrian ways
  6. Promoting resource efficiency in production process and waste minimization in industry
  7. Improving waste management system in both solid and liquid by promoting reduce, reuse and recycle.

Some strategies have been implemented by relevant agencies using the city budget. The city also promote and encourage private sector to contribute to climate change action. Currently, the city is initiating CSR marketplace to connect CSR to climate actions.




c/o Badan Lingkungan Hidup Provinsi Jawa Tengah

Komp. Diklat Jl. Setiabudi No. 201

Semarang - Jawa Tengah 




Integrated Climate Change Strategy in Yogyakarta


Greenhouse Gas Profile and Integrated Climate Strategy

Yogyakarta City



Profil of Yogyakarta City

The City of Yogyakarta was established in 1755 by Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono I in the valley of three rivers namely Winongo, Code, and Gajahwong. It lies in the sothern of Mount Merapi on 112 m above sea level. 

Yogyakarta is among the famous tourism and education destina-tion in Indonesia. Its 20% of population in 2012 are students. 



Economic activities in Yogyakarta is mainly contributed from tertiary sectors. Trade, hotel, and restaurant; transportation and communication; finance and other services compose 75% of Gross Domestic Products. In 2012, the economy grew 5.76% per year with major contribution from tertiery sector.


GHG Emission Profile of Yogyakarta City 2012


Greenhouse gases emission of Yogyakarta city in 2012 reaches 666,361.87 tons CO2e composed of energy sector 614,556 tonnes CO2e; IPPU sector 928.15 tonnes CO2e; AFOLU sector 1.207,62 tons CO2e; and waste sector 49.670,1 tons of CO2e. Proportion of GHG emission source in 2012 is described below :

GHG Emission Trend

In aggregate, GHG emission between the years 2008 - 2009 increases 92.5%. It comes from increasing of energy consump-tion. Latter case then GHG emission is decrease in 2009-2010. During 2010-2012, the GHG growth rate between 2.7% - 6.3% per year. Trend of GHG emission from 2008 – 2012 is discribed below

Tabel 1. GHG composition of Yogyakarta City (2008-2012)


From the tabel above, CO2 is dominated the GHG composition gas followed by CH4 and N2O



Business as usual (BAU) of GHG emission in Yogyakarta city from 2007 to 2020 is discribed below 


Commitment of Yogyakarta City 

Yogyakarta City vision is "Yogyakarta city as well-qualified education, cultural-Based Tourism, and environmental friendly service center city"



To achieve the purpose of the government's commitment to  cope with climate change and its impacts, Yogyakarta has seven strategies, namely: 

  1. optimizing integrated efforts to handle disease Dengue vector as impact of climate change.
  2. Providing and utilizing information and facilitating communication between community and government as a disaster mitigation and extreme weather Prevention. 
  3. Increasing sustainable water resource management through controlling consumption, maintenance and water resource protection. 
  4. optimizing integrated effort to reduce impacts of rising air temperature. It is also strengthening community resilient to drought and hot temperate. 
  5. Increasing energy efficiency of goverment buildings and street light 
  6. Controling Motorcycle moda transportation used by city government and improving public transportation management
  7. Improving energy and material efficiency, industrial waste water management and industrial cluster


Implementation activities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation in Yogyakarta in 2010-2014, as follows:

  1. Waste bank to recycle and reuse waste before manage to disposal
  2. Smart Driving Training
  3. Car free day
  4. Intelligent Transport System (ITS) at coridor 1-4
  5. Adding BRT
  6. Meterization of Street Light and converted to LED 




Badan Lingkungan Hidup Provinsi Jawa Tengah

Komp. Diklat Jl. Setiabudi No. 201

Semarang - Jawa Tengah