PAKLIM aims to provide proven models and structures for the implementation and dissemination of mitigation and adaptation measures, such as:
- Economic instruments and fiscal incentives/disincentives to get private actors engaged
- Innovative funding for mitigation and adaptation measures
- Mainstreaming of voluntary partnership agreements and development partnerships in energy-intensive industries
- Support of climate-friendly school and youth initiatives
- Development of reference scenarios and tools for measurement, reporting and verification
On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH assists the Indonesian Government its goals through Policy Advice for Environment and Climate Change (PAKLIM) Programme. The political Counterpart is the Indonesian Ministry of National Development Planning/BAPPENAS. The GIZ works closely with the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (KLHK), the Ministry of National Development Planning (Kementerian PPN/Bappenas), the Ministry of Industry (Mol), the Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA), the Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC), the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR) as well as cooperating provincial- and city-level governments in Central Java, Yogyakarta, and East Java.
The first phase of PAKLIM programme started in 2009 and was concluded in January 2013. It was structured along the three areas of National Policy Advice, Climate Change in Cities and Urban Areas and Climate Change in Industry and Industrial Estates and helped to develop the national policy framework for climate change mitigation and adaptation.
On the national level the programme supported the development of a concept for nationally appropriate mitigation actions, and based on that, the national action plan for GHG-mitigation (RAN-GRK) as well as a guideline for local mitigation action plans (RAD-GRK). Based on these action plans the ministries currently develop sectoral mitigation policies in 33 provinces. These policies could eventually be formulated as NAMAs, to ensure the international recognition of Indonesia’s climate governance and integrate international funding. The first application for a supported NAMA in the transport sector has been handed in at the UNFCCC.
A proper system of measurement, reporting and evaluation (MRV) is vital for the development of NAMAs, as they ensure the proper impact evaluation of a measure. Therefore, a study has been conducted to develop recommendations for the institutional setup of such a MRV system for Indonesia. Also, capacity building has taken place in that area, to establish feasible mitigation-scenarios for the different sectors and provinces.
On the local level, the programme supported the development of locally adapted action plans for mitigation and adaptation in cooperation with 17 districts and municipalities in East and Central Java. These plans provide GHG-emission scenarios and recommendations for feasible, locally appropriate measures.
Furthermore, a mitigation measure was initiated in the area of energy efficiency. OSRAM Indonesia entered a Development Partnership Program (DPP) for the retrofitting of conventional street lighting with LEDs. The cooperation provided information about the environmental benefits and the economic feasibility of such a mitigation action and demonstrated the big potential for energy savings.
The first phase of PAKLIM also focused on the integration of the private sector into the national mitigation activities. It supported voluntary partnerships of private sector actors with the ministry of Industry. In the cement sector a cooperative task force is already in place to negotiate the details of such an agreement. To get a clear picture of the needs and ideas of private sector actors, a study has been conducted, collecting the necessary or desired sponsorship by the ministry for industrial actors. An important step towards a closer collaboration between the government and the private sector has been achieved with the signing of a cooperation agreement with the Indonesian chamber of commerce KADIN.
Two DPPs have been realized in the industrial sector. Adidas Sourcing ltd. entered a DPP concerning the energy efficiency of its supply chain. PAKLIM provided training and workshops on the topic of energy management, identified mitigation options and implemented concrete measures, such as the retrofitting of outdated, energy-intensive technology. In the cement sector, Holcim and Indocement cooperated on the issue of solid waste management. These DPPs now offer best practice models, to be replicated by other companies.
The second phase of PAKLIM aims at the implementation and dissemination of the action plans at hand. It will sustain current activities and will apply a three-level-approach, by focusing stronger on the inter-linkage of the actions of the national and the local on the provincial level. Thereby it enhances the range of stakeholders and the local adaptation of national ideas and at the same time pushes the dissemination of best practices developed at the local level.
The biggest novelty is the introduction of a new work area Climate Education and Awareness, as the experience of the first phase of PAKLIM has shown that there is genuine lack of understanding for the reasons as well as the impact of climate change in Indonesia. Climate Education and Awareness Work area will therefore reach out to the Indonesian youth via school- and youth initiatives to raise the awareness of the next generation for the high importance of the climate and the environment for their personal life and the future development of their nation.
The project intends to enable national, provincial and municipality governments to develop and implement mitigation and adaptation strategies, to pursue the national goal to reduce Indonesia’s GHG-emissions by at least 26% by 2020 (compared to a business-as-usual scenario).
A reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through energy-efficient technologies and a shift from fossil fuels towards cleaner energies will not only have long-term positive impacts on the environment. It will also directly improve people’s overall quality of life. Subsequent impacts of such a climate change strategy implies benefits such as a reduction of poverty due to improved water and food security, or new job opportunities and comfortable working conditions due to a stable economy with improved production and product quality.
All PAKLIM activities strive to help realizing these benefits and aim at creating sustainable win-win solutions for all stakeholders. The project also puts a special focus on encouragement of gender mainstreaming by applying the principle of gender equality in all stages, such as: access, participation, control and benefit into the activities of every working area and on all project levels..